ശാസ്ത്ര സാങ്കേതികരംഗത്ത് നാഴികകല്ലായി മാറുമെന്ന് കരുതുന്ന ഇന്ത്യയുടെ ചൊവ്വാ ദൗത്യമായ മംഗള്യാന് ചൊവ്വയിലേക്കുള്ള കുതിപ്പ് തുടങ്ങി. മുന് നിശ്ചയിച്ച പ്രകാരംശ്രീഹരിക്കോട്ടയിലെ സതീഷ് ധവാന് സ്പേസ് സെന്ററില് ഉച്ചക്കഴിഞ്ഞ് 2.38നാണ് മംഗള്യാന്റെ വിക്ഷേപണം നടന്നത്.
Objectives of Mangalyaan
The main objective of this first Indian mission to Mars is to develop the technologies required for design, planning, management and operations of an interplanetary mission, comprising the following major tasks:
The government of India approved the project on 3 August 2012, after the Indian Space Research Organisation completed INR1.25 billion (US$19 million) of required studies for the orbiter. The total project cost may be up to INR4.54 billion (US$69 million). The space agency had initially planned the launch on 28 October 2013 but was postponed to 5 November 2013 following the inability of ISRO's spacecraft tracking ships to take up pre-determined positions due to poor weather in the Pacific ocean. Launch opportunities for a fuel-saving Hohmann transfer orbit occur about every 26 months, in this case, 2016 and 2018. If successful, ISRO would become the fourth space agency to reach Mars, after Roscosmos, NASA, and ESA.
The Indian Deep Space Network will perform navigation and tracking operations of this mission, while NASA's Deep Space Network will provide support services during the non-visible period of the Indian government Network. Additional monitoring will be provided by Shipping Corporation of India's tracking ships SCI Nalanda and SCI Yamuna which are currently in position in the South Pacific, off Fiji, during the initial phases of the launch and the separation of the spacecraft from the fourth stage of the rocket.
The space agency will use its PSLV-XL (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) rocket. The November 2013 launch will place the Mars Orbiter Mission into Earth orbit, then six engine firings on 6, 7, 8, 9, 11 and 16 of November will raise that orbit to one with an apogee of 23,000 kilometres (14,000 mi) and a perigee of 238 kilometres (148 mi) where it will remain for about 25 days. A final firing in 30 November 2013 will send MOM onto an interplanetary trajectory. Mars orbit insertion is planned for 24 September 2014 02:34 and would allow the spacecraft to enter a highly elliptical orbit with a period of 76.72 hours and a periapsis of 377 kilometres (234 mi) and apo-apsis of 80,000 kilometres (50,000 mi) around Mars. The spacecraft's dry mass is 500 kilograms (1,100 lb), and it will carry 850 kilograms (1,870 lb) of propellant and oxidiser. The main engine uses the bipropellant combination monomethylhydrazine and dinitrogen tetroxide for orbit insertion and other manoeuvres. The probe is expected to arrive in Mars orbit in September 2014 approximately at the same time as NASA's MAVEN orbiter.