Eid ul Fitr, Eid al Fitr, Id ul Fitr, or Id alFitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر), often abbreviated to Eid, is a two days Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm). Eid Al Fitr is a day of joy and thanksgiving. On this day, Muslims show their joy for the health, strength and opportunities of life, which Allah has given them to fulfill their obligations of fasting and other good deeds during the month of Ramadan. It is considered unholy to fast on this day. It is also a day of forgetting old grudges and ill feelings towards others.
ഹിജ്റ വർഷം ശവ്വാൽ മാസത്തിലെ ആദ്യ ദിവസമുള്ള ലോക മുസ്ലീംകളുടെ ആഘോഷമാണ് ഈദുൽ ഫിത്ർ അഥവാ ചെറിയ പെരുന്നാൾ. റമദാൻ വ്രതമനുഷ്ഠാനത്തിന്റെ പരിസമാപ്തികുറിച്ച് കോണ്ടാണ് ഈദുൽ ഫിത്ർ ആഘോഷിക്കപ്പെടുന്നത് . ഈദുൽ ഫിത്വർ എന്നാൽ മലയാളിക്ക് ചെറിയ പെരുന്നാളാണ്. ഈദ് എന്ന അറബിക് പദത്തിന് ആഘോഷം എന്നും ഫിത്ർ എന്ന പദത്തിന് നോമ്പു തുറക്കൽ എന്നുമാണ് അർത്ഥം. അതിനാൽ റമദാൻ മാസമുടനീളം ആചരിച്ച നോമ്പിന്റെ പൂർത്തികരണത്തിനൊടുവിലുള്ള നോമ്പുതുറ എന്നതാണ് ഈദുൽ ഫിത്ർ എന്നത് പ്രതിനിധാനം ചെയ്യുന്നത്. ഈദിന്റെ (പെരുന്നാളിന്റെ) ആദ്യ ദിനം റമദാൻ കഴിഞ്ഞു വരുന്ന മാസമായ ശവ്വാൽ ഒന്നിനായിരിക്കും
Eid is an Arabic word meaning "festivity," while Fiṭr means "original nature," implying the restoration of one's best human composition. The holiday celebrates the conclusion of the thirty days of dawn to sunset fasting during the entire month of Ramadan. The first day of Eid, therefore, falls on the first day of the month Shawwal.
Eid-ul-Fitr Salat (Namaz in Persian) is a Sunnah muak'kad (strongly recommended, just short of obligatory) or mandoob (preferable) depending on which juristic opinion is followed Islamic prayer consisting of two raka'ah (units) which is generally offered in an open field or large hall called an Eed-gah. This salaat or prayer, can only be performed with Jama’at (i.e., in congregation) and has an additional extra six Takbirs (raising of the hands to the ears while saying Allahu Akbar (God is Great), three of them in the beginning of the first raka'ah and three of them just before ruku' in the second raka'ah in the Hanafi school. Muslims are commanded by God in the Qur'an to complete their fast until the last day of Ramadan and pay the Zakat al-fitr before doing the Eid prayer.
Muslims form India is largest minority and constitute almost 12% of the country's total population. Islam is also the most recent religion added to India. Islam came to India in 12th century AD and began interacting with the Indian culture, particularly under the Mughal era. Needless to say, it was a mutually enriching experience.
In India, some popular places for Muslims to congregate to celebrate Eid at this time include the Jama Masjid in New Delhi, Aishbagh Idgah in Lucknow; in Kolkata there is a prayer held on Red Road. Muslims turn out in the thousands, as there is a lot of excitement surrounding the celebration of this festival. Eid is a public holiday and is celebrated all over India. It is common for non-Muslims to visit their Muslim friends and neighbours on Eid to convey their good wishes.
The traditional Eid greeting is Eid Mubarak, and it is frequently followed by a formal embrace. Gifts are frequently given new clothes are part of the tradition and it is also common for children to be given small sums of money (Eidi) by their elders. It is common for children to offer salam to parents and adult relatives.
After the Eid prayers, it is common for some families to visit graveyards and pray for the salvation of departed family members. Also common to visit older family member and get together to celebrate Eid and to share the meals that only exist on Eid.
Special celebratory dishes in Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh include sivayyan, a dish of fine, toasted sweet vermicelli noodles with milk and dried fruit. In Bangladesh, the dish is called shemai( bengali: সেমাই ). Many people also avail themselves of this opportunity to distribute zakat, an Islamic obligatory alms tax of 2.5% of one's annual savings, to the needy.
Eid HistoryBefore the advent of Islam in Arabia, we find mention of ‘id festivals as yawm al-sab‘ and yawm al-sabasab as well as some others among the idolaters of Arabia. The shari‘ah of the Israelites had ‘id festivals as well but as is evident from the Old Testament and other scriptures, these festivals related more to commemorating certain days of their history. The ‘id al-fitr was originated by Prophet Muhammad and is observed on the first of the month of Shawwal right after the end of the holy month of Ramadan in which the believers undergo a period of fasting.
It is evident from certain Ahadith that these festivals were initiated in Madinah after migration. Anas reports:
When the Prophet arrived in Madinah, he found people celebrating two specific days in which they used to entertain themselves by playing and merriment. He asked them about the nature of these festivities at which they replied that these days were occasions of fun and recreation of the days of jahilliyah. At this, the Prophet remarked that the Almighty has fixed two days [of festivity] instead of these for you which are better than these: ‘id al-fitr and ‘id al-adha
For Muslims, both these festivals of ‘id al-fitr and ‘id al-adha are occasions of showing gratitude to God, remembering him and are a means of entertainment. ‘A’ishah narrates that when on an ‘id day her father Abu Bakr stopped young girls from singing, the Prophet said: Abu Bakr! [Let them sing]; every nation has an ‘id and [this day] is our ‘id.